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Colonization and Associated Risk Factors of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among People Living with HIV at Jimma Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia

Nasal colonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a potential source of spread and a prerequisite for staphylococcal infections. MRSA colonization, which causes infection in people living with HIV (PLWHIV), could lead to a longer hospital stay, increased medical costs, and prolonged antibiotic administration. This study aims to determine the nasal colonization rate, associated risk factors, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of MRSA among PLWHIV at Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), Southwest Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHIV at JUMC from July to October 2021. Data on associated risk factors were collected by using a structured questionnaire and by reviewing patients’ medical records. Nasal swabs were cultured on mannitol salt agar and S. aureus was identified by the standard bacteriological procedures. S. aureus isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests by the modified Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method and resistance to the cefoxitin (30µg) disk signified MRSA. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were employed to identify factors associated with MRSA nasal colonization, and a p-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A total of 351 PLWHIV were included in our study. The overall nasal colonization rate was 17.7% (62/351) for S. aureus and 6.0% (21/351) for MRSA. Hospitalization in the previous six months, 27.35 (95% CI: 4.042-185.08; p = 0.001), a viral load greater than 1000 copies/mL, 24.44 (95% CI: 1.885-317.12; p = 0.014) and rural residence, 9.49 (95% CI: 1.404-64.19; p = 0.021), were associated with increased odds of MRSA nasal colonization. Among the total MRSA isolates, 81.2% were multidrug resistant with the highest resistance rate against Erythromycin (85.8%), followed by Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (66.6%), and Clindamycin (66.6%). Only 23.7% of MRSA isolates were resistant to Chloramphenicol and Gentamicin. A relatively low rate of MRSA nasal colonization was documented among PLWHIV. The majority of the MRSA isolates were, however, multidrug-resistant, which calls for regular screening of PLWHIV during their follow-up periods for the control and prevention of MRSA.

Nasal Colonization, PLWHIV, S. aureus, MRSA, Multi-Drug resistant, Jimma University Medical Center

Mekonen Adisu, Stephen Amankwah, Rahel Tamrat, Yared Alemu, Tadele Akeba, et al. (2023). Colonization and Associated Risk Factors of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among People Living with HIV at Jimma Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences, 9(4), 65-74.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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